A faster and easier alternative to Ramon's flocculation method

November 29, 2011

Since the 1920ies Ramon's flocculation method is practically useful to those engaged in the preparation and standardization of toxin and antitoxin.

Dr. Edward Dell | BMG LABTECH
Dr. EJ Dell
PhD, Sales Manager Northwest
BMG LABTECH USA

It is a valuable means of advancing the investigation of the nature of toxin and antitoxin and their combinations during vaccine research.


In this procedure, toxin and antitoxin are mixed in certain proportions and incubated until flocculation occurs in one of the tubes, indicating the flocculation power or value of the antitoxin. Ramon’s flocculation method takes at least one hour (including incubation) and requires highly experienced personnel for reproducible and semi-quantitative flocculation interpretation. This takes place in small batches of eg. six test tubes and the turbidity is determined by the human eye and according to specific guidelines.


With BMG LABTECH’s NEPHELOstar, a unique laser-based nephelometer, the flocculation test can be performed e.g. in 96-well microplates resulting in real time flocculation monitoring at higher throughput and sensitivity. Hence the time to reach quantitative and reproducible flocculation results in mixed toxin and antitoxin samples can be shortened to approx. 5 minutes. This is over ten times faster than Ramon's flocculation method. Data analysis and interpretation can even be done automatically by templates with the MARS Data Analysis Software.


The NEPHELOstar delivers objective flocculation analysis that can be reproduced when needed. For more information on the NEPHELOstar visit our product page

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